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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 91 through 105 of 107 found.

Our Earthuman Ascent: A Major Evolutionary Transition in Twndividuality

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Amunts, Katrin, et al.. The coming decade of digital brain research: A vision for neuroscience at the intersection of technology and computing. Imaging Neuroscience. Volume 2, April, 2024. In this MIT journal, 100 coauthors such as Angela Friederici, Christine Charvet, Gustavo Deco and Onur Güntürkün at once review the past decadal European Human Brain Project and scope out its next EBRAINS mega project.

In recent years, brain research has entered a new epoch driven enabled by data integration and modelling at multiple scales from molecules to the whole brain. As pioneered in Europe’s Human Brain Project (HBP), a systematic approach will be essential for meeting increased medical and technological challenges. This paper aims to develop concepts for the coming decade of digital brain research, introduce them to the research community, derive scientific common goals; and enhance EBRAINS, a research infrastructure resulting from the HBP’s work. We also address comprehensive brain models for artificial intelligence such as deep machine learning, so to outline a collaborative approach that integrates reflection, dialogues, and societal engagement on ethical and societal opportunities. (Abstract)

The Human Brain Project was a major European Union scientific research project that ran for ten years from 2013 to 2023. Using high-performance exascale supercomputers, it built a working infrastructure that greatly advanced knowledge in the fields of neuroscience, computational analysis and brain-related medicine.

The European Brain Research Infrastructures (EBRAINS) is an EU-funded digital research endeavor to gather an extensive range of data and tools for brain related studies. EBRAINS consist of a set of initiatives such as brain atlases, the sPyNNaker software suite for SpiNNaker hardware and community outreach.

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Grosu, George, et al. The fractal brain: scale-invariance in structure and dynamics.. Cerebral Cortex. 33/8, April, 2023. In this primary journal, nine Transylvanian Institute of Neuroscience, Romania, and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany researchers provide a latest affirmation of an inherent, beneficial self-similarity that seems suffuse and enhance from cerebral to ecosmic realms.

The past 40 years have witnessed extensive research on fractal scale-free dynamics in the brain. Here, we review these concepts across organizational levels from a structural and functional perspective. We discuss evidence about how environmental influences may explain the usefulness of fractal structure and scale-free dynamics in the brain. Moreover, we find that behaviors also exhibit scale-free properties which enabling an organism to thrive in a world with the same organizational principles. Altogether these attributes may endow the brain with computational capabilities by which to further unravel how the brain constructs percepts and fosters activities. (Excerpt).

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel and Stephanie Forkel. Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel and Stephanie Forkel. The emergent properties of the connected brain. Science. 378/505, 2022. University of Bordeaux and Sorbonne University neuroscientists extol frontier neuroimaging techniques for their potential to discern and elucidate cerebral complexities in health and sickness. See also The complex brain: connectivity, dynamics, information by Olaf Sporns in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (26/12, 2022).

• There is more to brain connections than the mere transfer of signals between brain regions. Behavior and cognition emerge through cortical area interaction which requires integration between local and distant areas orchestrated by dense networks. The imaging of connections has identified the driving factors behind the neurobiology of cognition. Differences between species and among humans then further the understanding of brain evolution. The prediction of long-term symptoms is now preferentially based on brain disconnections. This paradigm shift will reshape our brain maps and challenge current brain models. (Abstract)

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Complementary Brain

Han, Dongqi, et al. Synergizing habits and goals with variational Bayes. Nature Communications. 15/4461, 2024. Microsoft Research Asia, Shanghai, & Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology neuroscholars propose still another edition of nature’s common propensity to seek and adopt dual modes of an ingrained familiarity which can also be open to and assimilate new experiences. Many other versions spread across the website such as bifocal tradition and innovation (C. Keyes) and Iain McGilchrist’s left thing – right image brain/world. We then wonder in the third decade of our global 21st century as their polar opposition becomes violent however can all these substantial findings be seen as a natural optimum propensity. See also Linking fast and slow: The case for generative models by Johan Medrano, et al in Network Neuroscience. (8/1, 2024).

Both reliable and flexible behaviors are vital for biological and artificial embodied agents. Such responses are often set into two types: habitual (fast but rigid), and goal-directed (open but slow). Their occasions have been attributed to dual systems in the brain, but recent studies have revealed a sophisticated interplay between them. Our theoretical approach uses variational Bayesian theory, see note below. Habitual behavior depends on the prior experience, without a specific reason, while goal-direction relies on intention herein by minimum free energy. Our work suggests a fresh perspective on the neural mechanisms of complementary habits and goals, so to shed light on future research in decision making. (Excerpt)

In cognitive neuroscience, intelligent agents such as people and other mammals are thought to engage in two types of habitual and goal-directed behaviors. Habitual refers to the actions that are performed automatically, without thought or intent, so as to maximize benefits such as seeking food and avoiding danger. Goal-orientation has the aim of achieving something such as going to a certain place. This mode is based on knowledge about the world and responsive to an environment since it involves conscious decision-making and planning. (1)

Both efficient and flexible activities are crucial for biological agents. In regard, we proposed a novel model to provide better cognitive explanations by way of a deep learning variational Bayes which enables simulations using vision-based tasks with motor action. Our framework sheds new light on how to best achieve and balance both reciprocal states. (9)

Bayesian statistics compute and update probabilities after obtaining new data. Bayes' theorem then implies the conditional probability of an event as well as prior information or beliefs about the event or conditions. Variational Bayesian methods are a family of techniques typically used in complex statistical models consisting of observed variables (data) as well as unknown parameters, latent variables, and relative randomness.

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Conscious Knowledge

Storm, Johan, et al. An integrative, multiscale view on neural theories of consciousness. Neuron. 112/10, 2024. In response to an unhelpful rancor that has occurred in this field, this is a lead article in a special issue to consider and remediate. Eleven neurophysicians with postings in Norway, France, Italy, Estonia, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, the USA, and Germany such as Matthew Larkum and Pieter Roelfsema enter a 22 page, 200 reference survey aimed at clarifications, defined terms, deep affinities and more so as to foster a common sense rather than polarities. Typical entries are Thinking about consciousness by Christina Konen and Mariela Zirlinger, Anesthesia and the neurobiology of consciousness by George Mashour, An integrative view of the role of prefrontal cortex in consciousness by Theofanis Panagiotaropoulos, and Taking consciousness for real by Liad Mudrik, et al. While the Integrated Information Theory approach is the tacit basis, after some 15 years of diverse studies and iterative versions, the general scheme does seem aptly suitable.

How is conscious experience related to material brain processes? A variety of theories have emerged from recent consciousness studies, along with much debate. Although several researchers have focused on the validation of their preferred theory, this article takes an alternative approach. We argue that various versions do not contradict each other but may converge on basic neuronal properties that are compatible, complementary and altogether contribute to our understanding. Herein, we consider unifying, integration-oriented perspectives which seek to combine salient elements across the voices and visions. (Excerpt)

In conclusion, we have argued that neural theories of consciousness (1) show differences that are often not as large or insurmountable as initially thought, (2) offer opportunities for combining an array of elements at different levels of organization, and that (3) an integrated framework for understanding brain-consciousness relationships, guided by both empirical and theoretical advances, has strong potential to move the field forward in the next decade. (17)

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Gabora, Liane. How Does culture Evolve?. arXiv:2406.15464.. As an entry in the Annual Series on Advances in Culture and Psychology (Oxford, 2024), The University of British Columbia polyscholar continues her illuminations by explanations of how nature’s pervasive catalytic agencies as, they serve to initiate and enhance, can be well viewed in effect in societal advances.

This chapter joins evidence from cognitive science, evolutionary theory, anthropology, psychological studies, and computational models for a complex systems theory of creativity and cultural evolution. Creativity is guided by the global shape of one's worldview of memories, concepts, and beliefs. This integral, pliable structure is described using autocatalytic networks interact with each other, grow and evolve. Thus, they can underlie changes both within and between individuals, as well as across cultural lineages. The chapter outlines autocatalytic network models of the origin of culture, the developmental process which children assimilate, and the interplay between creativity and continuity. (Abstract)

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Yang, Zhaohui and Kshitji Jerath. Multi-scale Traffic Flow Modeling: A Renormalization Group Approach. arXiv: 2403.13779. UMass Lowell engineers achieve a unique advancement in the mathematical study of human mobilities from the viewpoint of a significant physical phenomena, as the title notes. At once the work identifies this double dimension and serves to trace and connect our Earthuman travels with universal principles.

Traffic flow modeling is typically performed at one of three (microscopic, mesoscopic, or macroscopic) scales. Recent works to merge models have had some success, but a need still exists for a single framework that can model traffic flow across spatiotemporal phases. Here we utilize a renormalization group (RG) theoretic approach, building upon our prior research on statistical mechanics-inspired traffic flow studies. We measure the coarse-grained traffic flow simulation using a pixel-based image metric and find good correlation in each case. (Excerpt)

In theoretical physics, the term renormalization group refers to the systematic investigation of changes of a physical system as viewed at different scales. The renormalization group is intimately related to scale invariance and conformal invariance, symmetries in which a system appears the same at all scales (so-called self-similarity). (Wikipedia)

My overarching research goal is to advance the understanding of complex dynamics observed in large-scale self-organizing systems, and to design bottom-up control algorithms that guide such systems to desired states via minimal intervention. (K. Jerath)

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology

Babazadeh, Yazdan, et al. The big bang of an epidemic. arXiv:2405.03703. We cite this work by YB, a University of Waterloo, Canada mathematician, Amin Safaeesirat, a Simon Fraser University, Canada physicist and Fakhteh Ghanbarnejad, a Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research medical ecologist (see below) as an example of global endeavors to discern complex systems forces that underlies and constrains even such public health phenomena.

In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework that governs the evolution of epidemic dynamics for both intra-population dynamics and inter-population mobility. By this dynamical system, we can identify the source(s) (A) and the initiation time (B) of any epidemic, which we refer to as its "Big Bang." This framework is corroborated by empirical data from the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran and the US, as well as the H1N1 outbreak. This comprehensive approach enhances our understanding of when and where epidemics began and how they spread, so to gain insights for effective public health policies and mitigating the impact of infectious diseases on populations worldwide. (Excerpts)

Fakhteh Ghanbarnejad studies disease ecology by calculating the risk of emerging epidemics. She aims to understand how climate change impacts epidemics, particularly in urban areas. She received her B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Physics at Sharif University of Technology and a Ph.D. in Bioinformatics from Leipzig University. After a postdoc at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, she worked as a Principal Investigator at the Technical Universities of Berlin.

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology

Ribiero, Fabiano and Vinicius Netto. Urban Scaling Laws. arXiv:2404.02642. In this chapter for a Compendium of Urban Complexity, a Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Brazilphysicist and a Research Centre for Territory, Transports and Environment (CITTA), University of Porto, Portugal architect chronicle the structural presence of self-similarities across large and smaller human habitations.

Understanding how size influences the internal characteristics of a system is a crucial concern. Concepts like scale invariance, universalities, and fractals find application in biology, physics, and particularly urbanism. Relative size impacts how cities form and function economically and socially. For example, what are the pros and cons of larger cities? Do they offer more opportunities and higher incomes than smaller ones? To address such issues, we utilize theoretical tools from scaling theory to quantify how a system's behavior changes across macro to micro scales. Drawing parallels with biology and spatial economics, this chapter explores recent discoveries, ongoing progress, and new questions regarding urban scaling.

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology

Yadav, Pawanesh, et al. Explaining Indian Stock Market through Geometry of Scale free Networks. arXiv:2404.04710. We note this work by Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh, India mathematicians as an example of how every natural and social domain can be traced to and expressed in complex dynamical system theories. In regard then, these findings once again serve define a double manifest and prescriptive biological reality.

This paper presents an analysis of the Indian stock market using a method based on embedding the network in a hyperbolic space using Machine learning techniques. We claim novelty on four counts. First, the hyperbolic clusters resemble the topological network communities better the Euclidean clusters. Second, we clearly distinguish between periods of market stability and volatility through a statistical analysis of distance and shortest path corresponding to the embedded network. Third, we use the modularity of the embedded network so market changes can be spotted early. Lastly, our approach segregate market sectors thereby underscoring its natural clustering ability. (Abstract)

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Macrohistory

, . LePoire, David, et al. Introduction to this Special Issue. Journal of Big History. 7/2, 2024. Journal of Big History. 7/2, 2024. The editors for this Continuously evolving to bridge significant gaps in our understanding of complexity issue are DL, Argonne National Laboratory, Andrey Korotayev, Russian Academy of Sciences and Leonid E. Grinin, Uchitel Publishing, Volgograd, see each bio below. See also a companion 2023 volume Evolution: Complexity in Nature, Society, and Cognition.by these editors reviewed herein. Some entries are On Trends and Periods in Big History by Robert Aunger, Chemical Evolution in Big History by Leonid Grinin, Applying a Big History Analogy to Facilitate Information Sharing by Gustavo, Lau and especially Last Stop on the Cosmic Journey: An Estimated Time of Arrival by Marc Widdowson. We record once again how Russian, aka Eastern Slavic, scholars tend to holistic vistas by which to observe a universe to humanity evolutionary expanse. A tacit acceptance of a phenomenal, independent reality then seems evident, as opposed to a western particle focus which rejects any unified integrity or aim.

Although complexity plays a significant role in big history, substantial gaps persist in our comprehension. While the papers in this issue do not provide definitive answers to these gaps, they contribute to the ongoing discussion on how to address these issues and propose potential pathways for resolution. These gaps encompass measurement, focus, organization, relevance, consistency, and interpretation. While there may not be unanimous agreement on the specific direction to take, the academic discussions evident in these papers aim to elucidate the issues and foster understanding within the expansive and diverse scientific community. (Abstract)

David LePoire has a Ph.D. in computer science and over thirty years experience at ANL in the development of scientific analyses, software, training, and modelling. His research includes Big History synergistic trends among energy, environment, organization, and information.

Andrey Korotayev is Senior Research Professor at Eurasian Center for Big History & System Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences. He is also Director of the Center for Stability and Risk Analysis at HSE University and Professor at Faculty for Global Processes, Moscow State University.

Leonid Grinin is Director of Uchitel Publishing, Volgograd as a global resource in Russian and English. He has with a Ph.D. from Moscow State University and is a philosopher of history who focuses on identifying regularities of macroevolution.

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Macrohistory

Grinin, L E. and A. V. Korotayev, eds. Grinin, L E. and A. V. Korotayev, eds. Evolution: Complexity in Nature, Society, and Cognition. Volgograd: Uchitel Publishers, 2023.. Volgograd: Uchitel Publishers, 2023. This is a current yearbook edition which contains companion, expanded entries by the Journal of Big History topical issue authors (7/2, LePoire herein). The text is online at the Uchitel Social Studies site (sociostudies.org/almanac/evolution/evol_9/), where other endeavors as the Social Evolution and History and Globalization Studies journals are posted. In addition this subject volume contains essays such as The Foundation of Chinese Systems Thinking by Hans Kuijper and My Cosmic Story: The Dark Energy by Noha Tarek.

The present volume is the ninth issue of the ‘Evolution’ Yearbook series which are designed to present the widest possible spectrum of subjects and issues from universal evolutionism to the analysis of regularities in the development of the Universe, cosmos, stars, and planets, the Earth, chemical, biological, and social systems, cultures, cognition, language, and more.

Earth Earns: An Open Participatory Earthropocene to Astropocene CoCreative Future

Ecosmo Sapiens > Old World > Climate

Jaderberg, Ben, et al. Potential of quantum scientific machine learning applied to weather modelling.. arXiv:2404.08737. Eight theorists at PASQAL, Massy, France, BASF Digital, Ludwigshafen, Germany and BASF Research Park, North Carolina report a first ever mid 2020s combine of quantum phase abilities by way of AI neural net methods to reach a worldwise achievement in climate analyses and forecasts.

In this work we explore how quantum machine learning can advance the science of weather modelling. Using quantum circuits as a device, we consider supervised learning from weather data and physics-informed solving of atmospheric dynamics. In the first case, a quantum model can be trained on global stream function dynamics. We then introduce the barotropic vorticity equation (BVE) as our model of the atmosphere. Using the quantum circuits algorithm, we solve the BVE under boundary conditions and use the trained model to predict unseen future weather states. Whilst challenges remain, our results mark an advancement in terms of the complexity of PDEs solved with quantum scientific machine learning. (Excerpt)

PASQAL is a leading Quantum Computing company in France that builds quantum processors from ordered neutral atoms in 2D and 3D arrays to bring a practical quantum advantage. PASQAL was founded in 2019, out of the Institut d'Optique, by Georges-Olivier Reymond, Christophe Jurczak, Alain Aspect, Nobel Physics, 2022, Antoine Browaeys, and Thierry Lahaye.

Ecosmo Sapiens > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Okamoto, Yoshihko. Okamoto, Yoshihko. Electronic Self-Organization in the β-Pyrochlore Oxide CsW2O6. arXiv:2406.13981.. arXiv:2406.13981. A select entry at the frontiers of materials by an Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo chemist which in 2024 can illustrate the innovative depths that collaborative expertise can now delve into. We then make especial note of a recognition of innate organizing forces at work even in this remote phase. By any stretch, it appears that our ascendant human acumen is ready and able to commence a new, second, intended era of a substantial cocreativity.

In this review, I present the electronic properties of the beta-pyrochlore oxide CsW2O6 and other related materials. At 215 K, CsW2O6 exhibits an electronic phase transition to a nonmagnetic insulating state by now able way of a complex self-organization of 5d electrons. In this phase transition, various factors such as geometrical frustration, electron correlation, phase transitions and chemical bonds play important roles. Their interplay has led to an electronic phase transition that preserves the cubic symmetry, three-dimensional nesting of Fermi surfaces, and an a three-centered-two-electron bond. In addition to these unique features of CsW2O6, each of them has been compared to other materials for an overview of the electronic properties of a wide variety of transition metal oxides. (Condensed abstract)

Ecosmo Sapiens > New Earth > second genesis

Fu, Xian and Yue Shen. Synthetic Genomics: Repurposing Biological Systems for Applications in Engineering Biology. ACS Synthetic Biology.. 13/5, 2024. In this American Chemical Society journal, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Genome Read and Write, BGI Research, Shenzhen, China researchers at this computational AI genetic endeavor (See BGI website Omics for All at www.bgi.com/global) view an open frontier as an epic turn to begin a second cocreative sequence phase of intentional benefits.

Substantial improvements in DNA sequencing and synthesis technologies and increased understanding of genome biology have empowered the development of synthetic genomics. The ability to design and construct engineered living cells boosted up by synthetic chromosomes provides opportunities to tackle enormous current and future challenges faced by humanity and the planet. Here we review the progresses, considerations, challenges, and future direction of the “design–build–test–learn” cycle used in synthetic genomics. We also discuss future applications enabled by synthetic genomics as this emerging field shapes and revolutionizes biomanufacturing and biomedicine. (Abstract)

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