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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 16 through 30 of 107 found.


Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet, Incubator Lifescape

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Pachter, Jonathon, et al.. Entropy, irreversibility and inference at the foundations of statistical physics. Nature Reviews Physics.. 6/382, 2024. Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, Stony Brook University theorists including Ken Dill propose a timely contrast of prior many-body theories with a revised 2020s frontier by way of non-equilibrium, maximum entropy agencies. By so doing they achieve a more suitable conceptual basis for a deep natural vitality from which life’s occasion and evolutionary development can go forth to its crucial Earthuman comprehension.

Statistical physics relates the properties of macroscale systems to the distributions of their microscale agents. A main factor has been the maximization of entropy, an equilibrium variational principle. Recent work has sought extensions to non-equilibrium fast and slow processes in the fluctuation relations of stochastic thermodynamics via large deviation theory. When recognized as an inference principle, an entropy maximum can be generalized for non-equilibria and applied to other entropic phases. Our goal is to enhance crosstalk among disparate researchers working to compare and contrast different approaches while pointing to common roots. (Abstract)

We first note that two disparate perspectives are used in statistical physics. From its earliest days, it was framed in terms of the positions and momenta of collisional particles, their conservation of energy, and puzzles of irreversibility and disorder. The second perspective is the language of probabilities, which extends the reach of statistical physics to problems and processes well beyond functions of temperature and pressure. Newtonian mechanics is a limited starting point for general principles of model-making, especially for myriad living systems whose constituents are themselves high-dimensional. (1)

The early conceptions of statistical physics saw systems as large ensembles of replicates, with probabilities as frequencies, and assumptions of chaotic collisions. A newer view holds that maximizing entropy is a workable way of drawing inferences about probabilities where the user is responsible for a proper model of physics, the equivalencies among states, and choice of constraints. The same maximization of entropy procedure applies to non-equilibrium predictions of forces and flows. This opens up a broad area of dynamical modeling applicable to situations far-from-equilibrium and with non-linearities and even few-particle distributions. (15)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Riiska, Calvin, et al. The Physics of Animal Behavior: Form, Function, and Interactions. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. Volume 13, 2024. In this latest chapter Emory University and University of Colorado biophysicists including Orit Peleg contribute to a current consilience of nonlinear complex system phenomena as it becomes amenable to and reflective of, in this exemplary case, with a deep physical source.

Understanding the physics of behavior in animals that has lately gained much attention. As a result, in this review we delve into the intricate temporal and spatial scales for both individual members and collective assemblies. Our work involves experimental and theoretical approaches which highlight the importance of feedback loops, emergent behavior, and environmental factors. Novel technologies such as high-speed imaging and tracking can then be used to validate physics-based models of complex 3D network dynamics across many species. We also consider applications in artificial intelligence, identify new areas for study, and envision further breakthroughs that reveal nature’s clever, cooperative behavioral repertoire. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Kogut, Alan. et al.. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE): Mission Design and Science Goals. arXiv:2405.20403. We cite this entry by seventeen astroscientists from across the USA onto the UK, France and beyond led by NASA Goddard as one instance of many ongoing worldwise endeavors to carry out what seems to be our intended participatory work of universal self-representation and affirmation.

The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) mission concept plans to measure the energy spectrum and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). PIXIE opens a broad discovery space for the origin, contents, and evolution of the universe. Measurements of small distortions from a CMB blackbody spectrum provide a robust determination of the mean electron pressure and temperature in the universe while constraining processes including dissipation of primordial density perturbations, black holes, and the decay or annihilation of dark matter. We describe the PIXIE instrument sensitivity, foreground subtraction, and anticipated science return from both the baseline 2-year mission and a potential extended mission. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Rauf, Liana, et al. A Trifecta of Modelling Tools: Navigating COMPAS, Shark and Bayesian Inference for Binary Black Hole Model Selection.. arXiv:2406.11885.. We note this entry by four Australian astrophysicists among many mathematical methods to illustrate and record the present sophisticated capacity of our apparent, ordained project of Earthica universal Ecosmica self-description and affirmation.

Gravitational waves (GWs) have revealed surprising properties of binary black hole (BBH) populations, but there is still mystery surrounding how these compact objects evolve. We apply Bayesian inference as an efficient method to calculate the BBH merger rates in the Shark host galaxies, to determine the combination of COMPAS parameters that outputs a population most like the GW sources from the LVK transient catalogue. (Gist)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Nadis, Steve. Nadis, Steve. Mathematicians Attempt to Glimpse Past the Big Bang. Quanta. May 31, 2024. By studying the geometry of model space-times, researchers offer alternative views of the universe’s first moments. A science writer profiles Ghazal Geshnizjani, Perimeter Institute, Jerome Quintin, University of Waterloo, and Eric Ling, University of Copenhagen as they collaborate on the latest studies of how the entire universe might have come into being. Their prime paper is On the initial singularity and extendibility of flat quasi-de Sitter spacetimes by GG, et al in the Journal of High Energy Physics (Vol. 182, 2023). See also Anisotropic examples of inflation-generating initial conditions for the big bang at arXiv:2403.02471 and Fingerprints of a Non-Inflationary Universe from Massive Fields at arXiv:2405.11016 for other entries by team members. Our plaNatural philoSophia interest then wonders about an ecosmic spacescene whence billions of years later an optimum bioglobe attains a sapiensphere progeny able to accomplish an aware, retrospective description. What kind of reality seems made and meant to achieve its post-recognition maybe so as to select and affirm itself? What manner of genetic-like informed knowledge might accumulate along with this capricious ascent?

A Taxonomy of Singularities The central issue confronting Geshnizjani, Ling and Quintin is whether there is a point prior to inflation at which the laws of gravity break down in a singularity. The simplest example of a mathematical singularity is what happens to the function 1/x as x approaches zero. The function takes a number x as an input, and outputs another number. As x gets smaller and smaller, 1/x gets larger and larger, approaching infinity. If x is zero, the function is no longer well defined: It can’t be relied upon as a description of reality. (SN)

A singularity hints at the fact that general relativity can’t be a complete description of the basic rules of physics. Efforts to form such a description, which would require reconciling general relativity with quantum mechanics, are ongoing. In order to make sense of the universe at the highest energy levels, he said, “we first need to understand classical physics as well as we can.” (SN)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

Domokos, Gabor, et al. Soft cells and the geometry of seashells. arXiv:2402.04190.. Morphodynamics Research Group, Budapest University of Technology members cleverly identify and enhance a heretofore unappreciated pervasive phase of natural, animate topologies.

A central problem of geometry is the tiling of space with simple structures. Triangles, squares, and hexagons in the plane and cubes and other polyhedra in three-dimensional space have sharp corners and flat faces. However, many tilings in Nature are shapes with curved edges, non-flat faces, and corners. Here, we resolve this dissonance by a new class of shapes named soft cells to minimize edges and add contours. We prove that an infinite class of polyhedral tilings can be smoothly deformed into soft versions. These ideal soft shapes, born out of geometry, are found abundantly in nature, from cells to shells.

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

Faldor, Maxence and Antoine Cully. TowarArtificial Open-Ended Evolution within Lenia using Quality-Diversity.. arXiv:2406.04235. We cite this paper by Imperial College London mathematicians to record the use of advanced computational programs as a way to facilitate and quantify a current notice of self-organizing generative dynamics in universal effect from quantum to embryonic to media phases. See also Hierarchically Organized Latent Modules for Exploratory Search in Morphogenetic Systems at arXiv:2007.01195 and Meta-Diversity Search in Complex Systems, A Recipe for Artificial Open-Endedness? at 2312.00455 by Inria, Univ. Ensta ParisTech (Flowers Team) members including Pierre-Yves Oudeyer.

In the quest to understand how complexity can self-organize from simple rules, computational models, such as Lenia cellular automata, have been developed. In this paper, we show that Quality-Diversity (QD), a family of Evolutionary Algorithms, is an effective framework to find diverse self-organizing patterns in complex systems. QD algorithms can evolve a large entity population adapted to their ecological niche. Our combined method achieved an array of lifelike self-organizing autonomous patterns similar to complex biological evolution. (Excerpt Edit)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

Parkar, Devendra et al. Evolving Collective Behavior in Self-Organizing Particle Systems. arXiv:2404.05915.. arXiv:2404.05915. Arizona State University computational biologists describe novel ways to quantify how lively entities and member groupings can spontaneously emerge into being and becoming. Again one might begin to realize that we Earthlings may be altogether finding a greater independent, cocreative existence in and of which all of our lives have a phenomenal source and significance.

Biological and social complex systems are now understood to arise from many local interactions which drive emergent collective behavior. But how they learning how produce a desired condition remains a challenge. In this paper, we present EvoSOPS, an evolutionary framework that searches landscapes of stochastic distributed algorithms for those that achieve a specified target behavior. These select algorithms govern self-organizing particle systems (SOPS) comprised of individuals with nearby sensings and movement. Finally, we distill insights from the diverse, best-fitness genomes produced for aggregation across EvoSOPS runs to demonstrate how the program can bootstrap future theoretical investigations into SOPS algorithms for new behaviors. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

tubiana, Luca, et al. Topology in soft and biological matter. Physics Reports. Volume 1075, 2024. 21 coauthors across Europe and the USA including Dorothy Buck and Julyan Cartwright contribute a 137 page, 798 reference survey some 15 years on of this expansive animated realm, as the quotes cite. Into these 2020s, the contribution thus achieves another robust, substantiated confirmation of an essential ecosmic vitality which seems graced by a ubiquitous recurrence of an independent, genetic-like code-script source. In this transitional decade, our emergent EarthTwin prodigy can well viewed as closing on her/his own revolutionary discovery.

The last years have seen many advances in our understanding of topological formations in biological and soft matter. Thanks to technological progress and the integration of experiments with numerical simulations, animated field is a vibrant area of research across a broad range of disciplines. Here we present a comprehensive overview of topological effects in systems ranging from DNA and genome organization to entangled proteins, polymeric materials, liquid crystals, and theoretical biophysics onto the common emergence, characterization, and typical objects in different systems. We move on to select cases such as polymeric materials; genome organization; entanglements in proteins; and solitons in complex fluids. (Excerpt)

Most of the materials we interact with in our daily life like plastics, biological tissues, food, and living matter, do not behave as simple liquids or crystalline solids. Instead, they show properties usually associated with both, like the ability to maintain a shape at rest while flowing when a stress is applied for a sufficiently long time. These materials are collectively called soft matter. (1)

Topology allows us to define a discrete set of equivalence classes, identified by topological invariants, over the continuum of geometrical conformations of a soft object. A fixed topological class, or topological constraint, reduces the number of available conformations and consequently influences the physical properties of a system. (1)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Chemistry

Dral, Pavlo, ed. Quantum Chemistry in the Age of Machine Learning. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2022. The editor is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at Xiamen University, China. The volume is all about the latest
computational methods as they become able to discern substantial compositions and properties at nature’s deepest ground. Our interest by a philoSophia view would altogether encounter and witness an incredible autocreative universe span as it finally evolves a global science/technology genius whom can learn, apply and begin a second aware, intentional futurity. See also Prebiotic chemical reactivity in solution with quantum accuracy and microsecond sampling using neural network potentials by Zakarya Benayad, et al in PNAS (121/23, 2024) which proceeds to study autocatalytic processes at life’s origin.

Quantum chemistry is simulating atomistic systems according to the laws of quantum mechanics, which are essential for understanding of our world and for technological progress. Machine learning revolutionizes quantum chemistry by more simulation speed, accuracy and new insights. Quantum Chemistry in the Age of Machine Learning covers this exciting field in detail, ranging from basic concepts to comprehensive methodological details to providing detailed codes and hands-on tutorials.

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Chemistry

Liu, Yi-Xiang, et al. Quantum interference in atom-exchange reactions. Science. May 14, 2024. Seven Harvard University biochemists contribute to the. historic advent of classical macro and quantum micro realms joining their relative forces and phenomena into the 21st century. In this case, coherence and entanglement effects are quantified as they react. See also the 2024 work of Gregory Scholes in this section. It is then worth a naturalist recognition that our collective Earthuman sapience appears quite able to begin to delve into, learn about and bring forth any novel cocreative materiality.

Chemical reactions, where bonds break and form, are highly dynamic quantum processes. A fundamental question is whether coherence can be preserved in chemical reactions and harnessed to generate entangled products. Here we investigated the 2KRb → K2 + Rb2 reaction at 500 nK, focusing on the nuclear spin degrees of freedom. We prepared nuclear spins in KRb in an entangled state by lowering the magnetic field to where the spin-spin interaction dominates in nuclear spin wavefunction. An interference pattern that is consistent with full coherence arose suggesting that entanglement within the reactants could be redistributed through the atom-exchange process. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Chemistry

Scholes, Gregory. Quantum-like states on complex synchronized networks. arXiv:2405.07950. A Princeton chemist whom by way of his lab group (scholes.princeton.edu) is a pioneer researcher for an beneficial integration of macro/micro, classical and quantum chemical reactivities. This entry is a latest review, search arXiv for more work such as Foundations of Quantum Information for Physical Chemistry at 2311.12238.

Recent work suggests that interesting quantum-like probability laws, including interference effects, can be manifest in classical systems. Here we propose a model for quantum-like (QL) states and bits. We propose a way that complex systems can host robust states to process information in a QL fashion. It is shown that QL states are networks based on k-regular random graphs which can encode information for QL like processing. Although the emergent cases are classical, they have properties analogous to quantum states. The possibility of a QL advantage for computer operations and new kinds of function in the brain are discussed as open questions.

The Scholes Group studies how complex molecular systems in chemistry and biology interact with light. We are interested to learn the mechanisms for photo-initiated processes like solar energy conversion. We are also working out how quantum-mechanical phenomena influence function. We study a broad range of projects which include questions in quantum information science, photobiomodulation medicine, quantum electrodynamics, photosynthesis, solar energy conversion, and photo-activated catalysis in synthetic chemistry.

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > exouniverse

Akrami, Yashar, et al. Promise of Future Searches for Cosmic Topology. Physical Review Letters. 132/171501, 2024. We cite this entry by 15 cosmoscientists from the USA, Norway, Japan, the UK, Italy, France and Spain coordinated by the COMPACT Collaboration at Case Western Reserve University for its content about an overall shape to our temporal galactic panorama but also the very achievement itself that an infinitesimal planetary intelligence can yet imagine, explore and quantify such infinite reaches. Who are we valiant peoples to appear and contain these abilities, for what participatory purpose do we carry out this task of ecosmic self-description and observance?

The shortest distance around the Universe through us is unlikely to be much larger than the horizon diameter if microwave background anomalies are due to cosmic topology. We show that observational constraints from the lack of matched temperature circles in the microwave background leave many possibilities for such topologies. We evaluate the detectability of microwave background multipole correlations for sample cases. Searches for topology signatures in observational data over the large space of possible topologies pose a formidable computational challenge.

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Igamberdiev, Abir. Toward the Relational Formulation of Biological Thermodynamics. Entropy. 26/1, 2024. The Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada biologist and editor of Biosystems sketches an integral unity from Robert Rosen’s organismic view as in Life Itself (1992) so to consider a current natural vitality with a consequent self-making autopoiesic essence and with a biosemiotic code basis.

Classical thermodynamics resides at an equilibrium as the reference frame for the Second Law from which entropy is derived. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics analyzes the fluxes of matter and energy in the general tendency to achieve equilibrium. These two modes may be useful but fail to apply to autopoietic living systems. Here, we discuss a relational biological thermodynamics which then relates an environmental context. Similar to physical domains, this animate synthesis reveals iterative structures formed during the search for an optimal coordinate system by organisms to maintain a stable non-equilibrium. (Abstract excerpt)
The relational concept of biological thermodynamics is focused on the internal causality governing the self-development and maintenance of living systems. Equilibrium and non- equilibrium systems perform work at the expense of their free energy. They possess the ability to transform the external fluxes of energy to support the basic properties such as adaptability, expediency, regulation, and integrity. Living systems maximize of their power via synergistic effects by the maintenance of their autopoietic structure and its expansion into a codepoiesis. (13)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Manzano, Gonzalo, et al. Thermodynamics of Computations with Absolute Irreversibility, Unidirectional Transitions, and Stochastic Computation Times. Physical Review X. 14/021026, 2024. Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems (IFISC) UIB-CSIC, Mallorca, University of Colorado, Boulder, and Santa Fe Institute theorists including David Wolpert scope out a highly technical exercise on the way to a working affinity between energetic phenomena and generic algorithm-like programs.

Developing a thermodynamic theory of computation at the interface of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and computer science requires dealing with stochastic halting times, unidirectional transitions, and restricted initial conditions. Here, we present an approach extends nonequilibrium thermodynamics to generic Markovian processes. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations of finite automata processing bit strings, a fundamental model from theoretical computer science. We also provide universal equalities and inequalities for the probability of words by a finite automaton in terms of thermodynamic quantities. Our results, while motivated from the computational context, are applicable more broadly. (Excerpt)

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