Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 1 through 15 of 36 found.
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science
Dark Matter Superfluidity.
We cite this entry by a University of Pennsylvania astrophysicist as a current example of collective Earthuman abilities to plumb and explore any depth and reach of cosmological phenomena. One wonders what kind of extant reality, as may become evident to us, proceeds to evolve its own facility of self-revelation and description. For whatever reason is this universal learning process going on. See also Boyle, Latham and Neil Turok. Two-Sheeted Universe, Analyticity and the Arrow of Time by Latham Boyle and Neil Turok at 2109.06204 and The Universe as a Driven Quantum System by Jose Vieira at 2109.01660 for other such scientific studies as they spiral to this global genius.
In these lectures I describe a theory of dark matter superfluidity developed in the last few years. The dark matter particles are axion-like, with masses of order eV. They Bose-Einstein condense into a superfluid phase in the central regions of galaxy halos. The superfluid phonon excitations in turn couple to baryons and mediate a long-range force (beyond Newtonian gravity). Thus the dark matter and modified gravity phenomena represent different phases of a single underlying substance, unified through the well-studied physics of superfluidity. (Abstract)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science
Shao, Helen, et al.
Finding Universal Relations in Subhalo Properties with Artificial Intelligence.
We cite this entry by ten astrophysicists posted at Princeton, Flatiron Inst., Columbia, U. Connecticut, Harvard, U. Edinburgh, U. Western Cape, RSA, U. Florida, and MIT including Mark Vogelsberger for its advancing technical content and as an example of how we peoples as an Earthificial phenomenon can proceed to explore, quantify and learn about any celestial expanse. Indeed curious, collaborative peoples can readily do this to such a degree that we might see ourselves as carrying out some ecosmic function of self-comprehension.
We use a generic formalism designed to search for relations in high-dimensional spaces to determine if the total mass of a subhalo can be predicted from other internal properties such as velocity dispersion, radius, or star-formation rate. We train neural networks using data from the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS) project and show that the model can predict the total mass of a subhalo with high accuracy. The networks exhibit extrapolation properties which can accurately predict the total mass of any type of subhalo and related galaxy at any redshift with different cosmologies, astrophysics models, subgrid physics, volumes, and resolutions, indicating that the network may have found a universal relation. (Abstract excerpt)
A Learning Planet > Mindkind Knowledge
Composition Machines: Programming Self-Organizing Software Models.
Akin to Okyay Kaynak, et al herein, a Lancaster University, UK computer theorist considers how to achieve a computational spontaneity which could operate and advance on its intrinsic own.
We are entering a new era in which software systems are increasingly complex and extensive. But they are becoming more difficult to develop and empower. To address this, self-organizing software suites open a promising direction since they allow the bottom-up emergence of complex computational structures from simple rules. In this paper, we propose a composition method which facilitates their presence and operation. Our approach enables the occasion of multiple programs based on well-known rules from the realm of Boolean logic and elementary cellular automata. (Abstract)
A Learning Planet > Mindkind Knowledge
Kaynak, Okyay, et al.
Towards Symbiotic Autonomous Systems.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A..
Bogazici University, Istanbul, Maladalen University, Sweden, and University of Science and Technology, Beijing engineers (surely a sapiensphere collaboration) introduce a special issue on present endeavors to achieve and enhance human - computer interface facilities and potentials. A common theme is that these Earthuman multiplex connectivities, by way of reciprocal interactions, will acquire an intelligent capability to learn and gain knowledge on their own. See the main paper by Yingxu Wang, et al herein for a copious explanation. And by a vista across centuries, this scientific journal founded by Isaac Newton can now report an historic spiral and ascent to a consummate worldwise phase, with a promise of a consummate discovery.
Starting in the last century, the widespread use of computers has changed the lifestyles of humankind. Since then, in Digital technology, the worldwide web, Internet of Things and artificial intelligence have led a growing interaction and empowerment among humans and technical devices. Looking ahead, this integration is tending to create symbiotic autonomous systems (SASs). What matters in the context of SASs is the degrees of autonomy they have, their capability to evolve (e.g. to learn and adapt), and their ability to interact with their environment, between themselves, and with ourselves. (Abstract excerpt)
A Learning Planet > Mindkind Knowledge
Wang, Yingxu, et al.
On the Philosophical, Cognitive and Mathematical Foundations of Symbiotic Autonomous Systems.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A.
In a special issue on this advance (see Kaynak), 15 multinational researchers (Y. Wang is a senior authority now based in Canada) scan the breadth and depth of this global frontier as multiplex Earthuman computational webworks increasingly form and take on a lively cerebral intelligence and informational content of their own.
Symbiotic Autonomous Systems (SAS) are advanced intelligent and cognitive systems exhibiting a self-organized collective intelligence enabled by coherent symbiosis of human-machine interactions. The emerging field of SAS has developed general AI technologies which function without human intervention and hybrid cognitive synergies between humans and intelligent machines. Here we look at a theoretical framework for SASs based on the latest advances in intelligence, cognition, computer, and system sciences which adopt bio-brain-social-inspired and autonomous behaviors. (Abstract abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology
Symbiosis is a widely observable phenomenon in biological, mental, and social systems where mutual dependences exist among plants, animals, and human societies as a necessary condition for them to co-evolve. Symbiosis is particularly important to human societies because of the fundamental need for extending individuals’ physical, intellectual, and/or resource limits. Therefore, it becomes a fundamental principle of system science and the universal context of modern sciences and engineering. (3)
Brahma, Suddhasattwa, et al.
Universal Signature of Quantum Entanglement Across Cosmological Distances.
We cite this entry by McGill University and University of Edinburgh physicists as one example among many as an indication of how our collaborative sapiensphere proceeds apace to quantify quantomic, atomic and ecosmomic realms across any depth and breadth. Into the 2020s quantum network systems are coming to pervade and distinguish an organic genesis.
universe originate from quantum fluctuations, most of the literature ignores the crucial role that entanglement between the modes of the fluctuating field plays in its observable predictions. In this paper, we import techniques from quantum information theory to reveal undiscovered predictions for inflation which, in turn, signals how quantum entanglement across cosmological scales can affect large structural formations. Our key insight is that observable long-wavelengths must be part of an open quantum system, so that the quantum fluctuations can decohere in the presence of an environment of short-wavelengs. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > Gaia
Irrgang, Christopher, et al.
Towards Neural Earth System Modelling by Integrating Artificial Intelligence.
Nature Machine Intelligence.
Seven senior researchers posted in Germany, the UK, and the USA including Niklas Boers and Elizabeth Barnes scope out this meld and upgrade of Earth system science with deep learning frontier methods. By this union, might this Gaia bioworld be able attain a global brain facility which cam proceed to take over and sustain itself?
Earth system models (ESMs) can help quantify the physical, geologic state of our planet and predict how it might change under ongoing anthropogenic forcing. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has been used to augment or even replace classical ESM tasks, raising hopes that AI could solve grand challenges of climate science. In this Perspective we survey the recent achievements and limitations of both process-based models and AI methods. We then propose a new approach in which deep neural networks and ESMs are integrated as learning, self-validating ESM–network hybrids. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS
Sone, Akira and Sebastian Deffner.
Quantum and Classical Ergotropy from Relative Entropies.
We enter this paper by Center for Nonlinear Studies, LANL and University of Maryland physicists to note the latest theoretical exercises with regard to this open habitable frontier which is now known to be graced by these malleable qualities and much more. See also Quantum Coherence and Ergotropy by Gianluca Francica, et al at arXov:2006.05424.
The quantum ergotropy quantifies the maximal amount of work that can be extracted from a quantum state without changing its entropy. Given that the ergotropy can be expressed as the difference of quantum and classical relative entropies of the quantum state with respect to the thermal state, we define the classical ergotropy, which quantifies how much work can be extracted from distributions that are inhomogeneous on the energy surfaces. A unified approach to treat both quantum as well as classical scenarios is provided by geometric quantum mechanics, for which we define the geometric relative entropy. The analysis is concluded with an application of the conceptual insight to conditional thermal states, and the correspondingly tightened maximum work theorem. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics
My research interests focus on quantum information theory, spanning from quantum control theory to quantum thermodynamics, inspired by classical control and optimization, and their applications quantum computation, quantum simulation, quantum communication and quantum metrology. By working at industry, research universities or liberal arts colleges, I hope to contribute to developing the state-of-the-art quantum technology as a theoretical physicist. (Akira Sone)
Valani, Rahil and David Paganin.
Deterministic Active Matter Generated Using Strange Attractors.
University of Adelaide and Monash University physicists provide a further mathematical finesse to explain a natural spontaneity which fosters and results in life-like movements across many substantial conditions.
Strange attractors are induced by governing differential or integro-differential equations associated with non-linear dynamical systems, but they can also drive such dynamics. When such equations contain stochastic forcing, they may be replaced by deterministic chaotic driving via an overall strange attractor. We outline a flexible deterministic means for chaotic strange-attractor driven dynamics, and illustrate its utility for modeling active matter. Similar phenomena may be modeled in this manner, such as run-and-tumble particles, run-reverse-flick motion, clustering, jamming and flocking. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Chemistry
Ueltzhoffer, Kai, et al.
A Drive towards Thermodynamic Efficiency for Dissipative Structures in Chemical Reaction Networks.
In a paper for a Foundations of Biological Computation issue edited by David Wolpert and Jessica Flack, University College London theorists including Karl Friston describe the apparent activity of natural forces which might impel and foster an oriented emergence of substantial complexities. See also Memory and Markov Blankets by the collegial group et al in this journal. However see Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Free Energy Principle by M. Colombo and P. Palacios in Biology and Philosophy (August 2021) for some issues.
thermodynamically favoured whenever they dissipate free energy that could not be accessed otherwise. These accounts apply as well to relatively simple systems such as convection cells, hurricanes, candle flames, or lightning strikes as they do to complex biological systems. Computational properties such as predictive representations of environmental dynamics can then be linked to the thermodynamics of underlying physical processes. However, the selection of dissipative structures with efficient subprocesses is not well understood. Here we explain how bifurcation-based, work-harvesting processes which sustain complex dissipative structures might be driven towards thermodynamic efficiency. We cite a simple mechanism that leads to self-selection in a chemical reaction network and discuss how this can emerge naturally in a hierarchy of self-similar dissipative forms. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Universal
Emergence of the Classical from Within the Quantum Universe.
The veteran LANL theoretical physicist (search) continues his collegial endeavor to finesse the essence of this deepest, fundamental realm. In some way a John Wheeler-like observer function is a necessary activity, which then involves an informational receive/record aspect. By a wider view, our Earthuman phenomenon seems to serve as a microcosmic agent of universal self-articulation, which yet remains an arduous process of to express what may be actually going on.
Decoherence shows how the openness of quantum systems -- interaction with their environment -- suppresses flagrant manifestations of quantumness. Einselection accounts for the emergence of preferred quasi-classical pointer states. Quantum Darwinism goes beyond decoherence. It posits that the information acquired by the monitoring environment responsible for decoherence is disseminated, in many copies, in the environment, and thus becomes accessible to observers. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm
Binder, Felix, et al, eds.
Thermodynamics in the Quantum Regime.
This new collection is a good example that nature’s deep domain has become recognized as a substantial field in this energetic regard. It opens with Introduction to Quantum Thermodynamics by Robert Alicki and Ronnie Kosloff, which can be PDF downloaded from the Springer site.
Quantum Thermodynamics is a novel research field which explores its basis in quantum theory and addresses such phenomena which appear in finite-size, non-equilibrium and finite-time contexts. Blending elements from open quantum systems, statistical mechanics, many-body physics, and information theory, it pinpoints thermodynamic advantages and barriers emerging from quantum coherence and correlations. In six sections the book covers topics such as quantum heat engines and refrigerators, fluctuation theorems, the emergence of thermodynamic equilibrium, strongly coupled systems, as well as various information theoretic approaches including Landauer's principle and thermal operations.
Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat
Unterberger, Jeremie and Philippe Nghe.
Stoechiometric and Dynamical Autocatalysis for Diluted Chemical Reaction Networks.
We cite this entry by University of Lorraine and University of Paris chemists as an example of novel appreciations of the widespread, diverse presence and importance of natural catalytic self-creativity. In regard, one might well view a human functional identity as “ecosmic catalysts” as we may begin to intentionally take up and continue life’s future genesis.
Autocatalysis in a variety of active forms is being found to underlie the ability of chemical and biochemical systems to replicate. Here we study a topological condition for autocatalysis, namely: restricting the reaction network to highly diluted species, and assume a strongly connected component with at least one reaction with multiple products. We find this condition to be necessary and sufficient for stoechiometric autocatalysis. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Fractal
Our main result in a nutshell: The chemical mechanism that epitomizes the ability of living systems to reproduce themselves is autocatalysis, namely, catalysis brought about by one of the products of the reactions. Autocatalysis must have been present from the early stages of the origin of life, from primitive forms of metabolism to autocatalytic sets based on the first catalytic biopolymers and the emergence of sustained template-based replication of nucleic acids. Diverse artificial autocatalytic systems have been implemented in the laboratory, and remnants of ancestral autocatalytic networks may be found in extant metabolic network. (1)
Feinstein, Adina, et al.
Testing Self-Organized Criticality Across the Main Sequence using Stellar Flares from TESS.
University of Chicago, MIT and University of Michigan (Fred Adams) add a latest confirmation of nature’s celestial innate preference to reside at this state of optimum efficiency in every disparate instance.
Stars produce explosive flares, which are believed to be powered by the release of energy stored in coronal magnetic field configurations. It has been shown that solar flares exhibit energy distributions typical of self-organized critical systems. This study applies a novel flare detection technique to data obtained by NASA's TESS mission and identifies ∼106 flaring events on ∼105 stars across spectral types. Our results suggest that magnetic reconnection events that maintain the topology of the magnetic field in a self-organized critical state are ubiquitous among stellar coronae. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology
While the sand pile analogy is simplistic by construction, self-organized criticality naturally manifests in a variety of physical systems. Applications have been found in hydrodynamical turbulence, forest fires and other percolation systems, landslides, neuroscience, climate fluctuations, rainfall, accretion disks, traffic jams, evolution, extinction, financial markets and even Conway's game of Life, to name a non-comprehensive list. (1)
2021 Census of Interstellar, Circumstellar, Extragalactic Protoplanetary Disk, and Exoplanetary Molecules..
An MIT astrobiochemist provides a 73 page, tabular and graphic display based on the latest worldwide findings. These celestial chemicals are arranged by how many atoms they contain, from two to thirteen and more. A Periodic Table is posted to show which 19 elements - H, He, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe – are found to be involved so far. Again our interest is an appearance that nature’s materiality well seems to possess an innate fertility, from which eons later a sentient bioworld could reconstruct in amazement.
To date, 241 individual molecular species, comprised of 19 different elements, have been detected in the interstellar and circumstellar medium by astronomical observations. These molecules range in size from two atoms to seventy, and have been detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. This census sums up the first detection of each molecular species, the observational facility, wavelength range, transitions, and laboratory spectroscopic work. Tables of molecules detected in interstellar ices, external galaxies, protoplanetary disks, and exoplanetary atmospheres are provided. (Abstract)
What We Are Thinking About: Lifecycle of Carbon in the Universe: As much as 25% of all interstellar carbon may be locked into large aromatic molecules. How these species are formed and incorporated into other molecules, and how these processes are tied to star- and planet-formation, are open issues. Linking Astrochemistry to Astrobiology: How far does chemistry advance in the interstellar medium before it is incorporated into planets, as the molecular feedstock from which life arises? Cosmic Origins of Biological Homochirality: All life on earth uses a single enantiomer (handedness) of most chiral molecules in biology. Thermal fluctuations or heterogenous catalysis at mineral surfaces might be a reason, but also the inheritance of initial seed excess from space. (McGuire Research Group site)