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III. Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet Lifescape

1. Quantum Organics in the 21st Century

Biamonte, Jacob, et al. Quantum Machine Learning. arXiv:1611.09347. A six member team with postings in Malta, Canada, Spain, Sweden, Germany, and the USA, including Seth Lloyd, advance a novel synthesis of recurrent neural net machine processes with quantum phenomena seen to possess algorithmic, complex dynamic system, information processing affinities. An expansive scope, speed and capability can thus be availed. Once again, from quantum depths to human heights, cosmic evolutionary optimization seems most about an educative experience. See also a citation herein for Biamonte’s Quantum Complexity Science Initiative.

Recent progress implies that a crossover between machine learning and quantum information processing benefits both fields. Traditional machine learning has dramatically improved the benchmarking and control of experimental quantum computing systems, including adaptive quantum phase estimation and designing quantum computing gates. On the other hand, quantum mechanics offers tantalizing prospects to enhance machine learning, ranging from reduced computational complexity to improved generalization performance. The most notable examples include quantum enhanced algorithms for principal component analysis, quantum support vector machines, and quantum Boltzmann machines. Progress has been rapid, fostered by demonstrations of midsized quantum optimizers which are predicted to soon outperform their classical counterparts. Further, we are witnessing the emergence of a physical theory pinpointing the fundamental and natural limitations of learning. (Abstract)

Bianconi, Ginestra. Interdisciplinary and Physics Challenges of Network Theory. arXiv:1509.00345. As a grand synthesis across nature and nurture proceeds apace, a Queen Mary University of London mathematical physicist sketches out how a newly found “universally of complex networks” can be extended even to quantum domains. Such a perception then reveals their generic, scale-free presence from every cosmic to cerebral realm. See also her paper Network Geometry from Complexity to Quantum Geometry (1511.04539), Complex Quantum Network Manifolds in Dimension d > 2 are Scale-Free with Christoph Rahmede (search, 1506.02648).and Emergent Complex Network Geometry (1412.3405).

Network theory has unveiled the underlying structure of complex systems such as the Internet or the biological networks in the cell. It has identified universal properties of complex networks, and the interplay between their structure and dynamics. After almost twenty years of the field, new challenges lie ahead. These challenges concern the multilayer structure of most of the networks, the formulation of a network geometry and topology, and the development of a quantum theory of networks. Making progress on these aspects of network theory can open new venues to address interdisciplinary and physics challenges including progress on brain dynamics, new insights into quantum technologies, and quantum gravity. (Abstract)

A quantum theory of networks, combining quantum mechanics and complex networks properties, could play a pivotal role in the future development of quantum communication technologies. When fully implemented on the large scale, it is likely that they will share some of the complexity properties of the current communication systems. Therefore the cross-disciplinary field between complex network and quantum information is gaining increasing attention. On one side, quantum dynamical processes are increasingly explored on network structures. On the other side, quantum information proposals, are pushing the frontier of our understanding of how quantum networks could be realized. (2)

Bianconi, Ginestra and Christoph Rahmede. Complex Quantum Network Manifolds in Dimension d > 2 are Scale-Free. arXiv:1506.02648. In accord with her Interdisciplinary and Physics Challenges of Network Theory (search, 1509.00345) the Queen Mary University of London theorist is joined by a Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, physicist to add more credence to a spontaneously self-organizing quantum cosmology. A graphic display therein of a scale-free complex quantum network could just as well be a rich-hub neural network, or any other domain such as social media. In these 2010s, largely unnoticed, a radical new perception of this fundamental phase has accrued which makes it no longer separate by an unrealistic divide from classical macro phenomena. A lengthy bibliography braces this fertile advance.

Several theoretical approaches have been proposed in quantum gravity for the description and characterization of quantum discrete spaces including loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulations, causal sets, quantum graphity, energetic spin networks, and diffusion processes on such quantum geometries. In most of these approaches, the discrete spaces are network manifolds with homogeneous degree distribution and do not have common features with complex networks describing complex systems such as the brain or the biological networks in the cell. Nevertheless it has been discussed that a consistent theory of quantum cosmology could also be a theory of self-organization, sharing some of its dynamical properties with complex systems and biological evolution. In the last decades, the field of network theory has made significant advances in the understanding of the underlying network topology of complex systems as diverse as the biological networks in the cell, the brain networks, or the Internet. Therefore an increasing interest is addressed to the study of quantum gravity from the information theory and complex network perspective. (2)

Blinov, Boris. Hidden Context. Nature. 460/464, 2009. A commentary on the paper “State-Independent Experimental Test of Quantum Contextuality” by Gerhard Kirchmair, et al, in the same issue wherein a “non-contextuality” tenet that quantum measurements do not depend on their specific environs or viewing is set aside. Rather, via an example of dice thrown that do not stop tumbling until they are observed which then sets their face value, the quantum realm is said to possess an inherent contextual nature. By implication one might imagine, as various theories of a self-selecting universe suggest, this extant cosmic genesis begs our conscious observation and witness to be birthed into full existence.

Bogdanov, Yu, et al. Quantum Approach to the Dynamical Systems Modeling. arXiv:1906.06410. We cite this Russian Academy of Sciences paper as an example into the later 2010s of how a worldwide noosphere phase has come to view and treat this once arcane domain by the same mathematical complexity methods as everywhere else.

We present a general approach to the classical dynamical systems simulation. This approach is based on classical systems extension to quantum states. The proposed theory can be applied to analysis of multiple (including non-Hamiltonian) dissipative dynamical systems. As examples, we consider the logistic model, the Van der Pol oscillator, dynamical systems of Lorenz, Rössler (including Rössler hyperchaos) and Rabinovich-Fabrikant. Developed methods and algorithms integrated in quantum simulators will allow us to solve a wide range of problems with scientific and practical significance. (Abstract)

Bokulich, Alisa. Reexamining the Quantum – Classical Relation: Beyond Reductionism and Pluralism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. A Boston University philosopher rejects the polarities of reductionism or pluralism: either everything is condensed to a root theory or each extant domain comes with its own separate concepts. The latter option is equated with Nancy Cartwright’s “Dappled World” that such a nature is inherently unintelligible. Instead, from Sandra Mitchell’s “integral pluralism,” an “interstructuralism” is proposed which, as the quote attests, does not abandon the quest for real knowledge. A significant contribution, if fully appreciated.

Interstructuralism can be understood as a middle path between reductionism and theoretical pluralism. From theoretical pluralism it takes the insight that predecessor or higher-level theories such as classical mechanics are still playing an important theoretical role in scientific research; that is, quantum mechanics – without classical mechanics – gives us an incomplete picture of our world. From reductionism, however, it takes the lesson that we cannot rest content with the view that each of these theories describes its own distinct domain of phenomena. We do not live in a dappled world, and we stand to miss out on many important scientific discoveries and insights if we do not try to bring our various theoretical descriptions of the world closer together. (174)

Briggs, G. A. D., et al. The Oxford Questions on the Foundations of Quantum Physics. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 469/July 3, 2013. A summary of the Oxford Conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality held in honor of the 80th birthday of physicist and Anglican priest John Polkinghorne at St. Anne’s College, September 2010. Its description, program and full papers are available at www.physics.ox.ac.uk/polkinghorne2010/home.

The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics—relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory’s secret weapon of experiment. (Abstract)

The Oxford Questions. 1. Time, irreversibility, entropy and information: (a) Is irreversibility fundamental for describing the classical world? (b) How is irreversibility involved in quantum measurement? (c) What can we learn about quantum physics by using the notion of information? 2. The quantum–classical relationships: (a) Does the classical world emerge from the quantum, and if so which concepts are needed to describe this emergence?(b) How should we understand the transition from observation to informed action? (c) How can a single-world realistic interpretation of quantum theory be compatible with non-locality and special relativity? 4. Quantum physics in the landscape of theories: (a) What insights are to be gained from category-theoretic, informational, geometric and operational approaches to formulating quantum theory? (b) What are productive heuristics for revisions of quantum theory? (c) How does quantum physics cohere with space–time and with mass–energy? 5. Interaction with questions in philosophy: (a) How do different aspects of the notion of reality influence our assessment of the different interpretations of quantum theory? (b) How do different concepts of probability contribute to interpreting quantum theory?

Bub, Jeffrey. Bananaworld: Quantum Mechanics for Primates. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. The veteran University of Maryland physicist and philosopher employs a clever device by which to fathom and explain the phenomenal environs whereof we find might ourselves. As a capsule, at its deepest essence nature seems to be informational in kind. As famously stated by John Wheeler and Rolf Landauer, in some way physical materiality involves an “information-theoretic structure.” As a result, something is going on by way of “probabilistic correlations” from which classical macroscopic realms arise and form. Indeed difficult to express, which is why this literary license is availed. For the record, I heard Jeffrey Bub, along with Hans Halvorson, speak at a Boston University colloquium on quantum information in 2009. This conceptual project, now in its second worldwide century, of fundamental inquiry about universe and human on continues apace.

What on earth do bananas have to do with quantum mechanics? From a modern perspective, quantum mechanics is about strangely counterintuitive correlations between separated systems, which can be exploited in feats like quantum teleportation, unbreakable cryptographic schemes, and computers with enormously enhanced computing power. Schrodinger coined the term "entanglement" to describe these bizarre correlations. Bananaworld -- an imaginary island with "entangled" bananas -- brings to life the fascinating discoveries of the new field of quantum information without the mathematical machinery of quantum mechanics. The result is a subversive but entertaining book that is accessible and interesting to a wide range of readers, with the novel thesis that quantum mechanics is about the structure of information. What we have discovered is that the possibilities for representing, manipulating, and communicating information are very different than we thought.

Burghardt, Irene and Andreas Buchleitner. Quantum Complex Systems. Annalen der Physik. 527/9-10, 2016. A Goethe University theoretical chemist and an Albert Ludwigs University quantum physicist introduce a special issue with the title, which is also that of this section. Articles such as Quantum Bottlenecks and Unidirectional Energy Flow in Molecules, Towards Quantum Cybernetics, and Dissipative Dynamics of Quantum Fluctuations are examples of how this deepest realm is being found amenable to the classical nonlinear theories. This premier German physics journal is now available on the web from its original 1799 issue, in English since the 1970s, whose content tracks its course as it now reaches current quantum and cosmic realms.

This special issue of Annalen der Physik collects expertise and perspectives on complex (quantum) systems from very diverse areas of research: disordered quantum systems, molecular dynamics and interactions, mesoscopic physics, quantum many body physics, open quantum systems, network and scattering theory, quantum information and control – which all share the same interest in getting a better grasp of complexity on the quantum level. This collection of various contributions either on complex molecular structures which are ever better resolved, or on novel composite quantum systems or materials which are ever better controlled, provide a snapshot of current trends in the science of complex quantum systems. (Excerpts)

Camargo, Hugo, et al. Complexity as a Novel Probe of Quantum Quenches: Universal Scalings and Purifications. arXiv:1807.07075. We cite an entry by a MPI Gravitational Physics and Kyoto University group including Michael Heller as an example among many of how this fundamental realm is now treated in a similar way to all other natural and social stages and fields. Their work employs “non-equilibrium quantum dynamics” and more on the way to these descriptions. See also Resetting Uncontrolled Quantum Systems by Miguel Mavascues in Physical Review X (8/031008, 2018) for another instance.

We apply the recently developed notion of complexity for field theory to a quantum quench through the critical point in 1+1 dimensions. We begin with a toy model consisting of a quantum harmonic oscillator, and show that complexity exhibits universal scalings in both the slow and fast quench regimes. We then generalize our results to a 1-dimensional harmonic chain, and show that preservation of these scaling behaviours in free field theory depends on the choice of norm. Applying our set-up to the case of two oscillators, we quantify the complexity of purification associated to a subregion, and demonstrate that complexity is capable of probing features to which the entanglement entropy is insensitive. We find that the complexity of subregions is superadditive, and comment on potential implications for holography. (Abstract)

Among the most exciting developments in theoretical physics is the confluence of ideas from quantum many-body systems, quantum information theory, and gravitational physics. Recent progress in this vein includes the development of tensor network methods for simulating quantum many-body systems, proofs of irreversibility of RG flows using quantum information techniques, and the illumination of the role of codimension extremal surfaces in the emergence of holographic spacetime. (1)

Carrasquilla, Juan. Machine Learning for Quantum Matter. arXiv:2003.11040. This entry by a Vector Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Toronto mathematical physicist is a current example of the cross-integration of deep cerebral learning techniques with both classical physics and quantum domains.

Quantum matter, the research field studying material phases whose properties are intrinsically quantum mechanical, draws from areas as diverse as condensed matter physics, materials science, statistical mechanics, quantum information, quantum gravity, and large-scale numerical simulations. Here we review the recent adaptation of machine learning ideas for quantum matter studies, ranging from algorithms that recognize conventional and topological states in synthetic and experimental data, to quantum states in terms of neural networks and quantum many-body physics. (Abstract excerpt)

Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla, et al. Preface: Special Issue on Quantum, Logic and Music. Soft Computing. 21/6, 2017. An introduction by Italian and Dutch physicists as this 21st century integral revolution proceeds to unite universe and human. Some entries are Quantum Approach to Epistemic Semantics, Modelling Tonal Hierarchies, Interval Cycles and Quantum Probabilities, and The Rhythm of Quantum Algorithms. Across the universe, we each and all sing in accord and tune from one cosmic hymnal. See also From Quantum Information to Musical Semantics (2013) by the lead editor noted above.

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