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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 45 of 80 found.


Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet, Incubator Lifescape

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm

Munson, Anthony, et al. Complexity-constrained quantum thermodynamics. arXiv: 2403.04828. We cite this March entry by University of Maryland, Universitat Autňnoma de Barcelona, Freie Universität Berlin, and Harvard University physicists including Nicole Yunger Halpern as an example of current syntheses of these various computational aspects into a whole theoretic integrity.

Quantum complexity measures the difficulty of realizing a quantum process, such as preparing a state or implementing a unitary. We present an approach to quantifying the thermodynamic resources required to implement a process if the process's complexity is restricted. We focus on the prototypical task of information erasure, or Landauer erasure, wherein an n-qubit memory is reset to the all-zero state. We show that the minimum thermodynamic work required to reset an arbitrary state, via a complexity-constrained process, is quantified by the state's complexity entropy. Overall, our framework extends the resource-theoretic approach to thermodynamics to integrate a notion of time, as quantified by complexity. (Brief excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Cecchini, Chiara, et al. Testing scale-invariant inflation against cosmological data. arXiv:2403.04316. University of Trento, Italy and University of Sheffield, UK physicists Into 2024, provide a strongest affirmation of nature’s intrinsic self-similarity across the breadth and depth of the celestial raiment. In this present regard, the fractal-like property extends to and holds for the universe’s initial expansion. See also Observational tests in scale invariance I and II: galaxy clusters and rotation of galaxies by Andre Maeder arXiv:2403.08759 and 2403.08379.

There is a solid theoretical and observational basis behind scale-invariance as a fundamental symmetry of Nature. We consider a recent classical inflationary model that is quadratic in curvature with a scalar field coupled to gravity. By our approach, the two-field dynamics of the system can be solved based on the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck and BICEP/Keck. Overall, we argue that scale-invariant inflation possesses features which make it an interesting benchmark for tests of inflation from future CMB data.

To sum up, in the present work we have performed the first robust comparison of scale-invariant inflation against current precision cosmological observations from the CMB. Our findings confirm that the model is in very good health, and we feel that it provides another reference for tests of inflation from future CMB experiments. Our work reinforces the key role of scale-invariance as an important theoretical guiding principle. (24)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Sendker, Franziska, et al.. Emergence of fractal geometries in the evolution of a metabolic enzyme. Nature. April 10, 2024. MPI Terrestrial Microbiology researchers report finding what is considered to be the first actual notice of such self-similar topologies in organismic biological phenomena. The work became science news because it attests to much how nature’s infinite strata does manifest itself everywhere.

Fractals are patterns that are self-similar across multiple length-scales. Macroscopic fractals are common in nature; however, so far, molecular assembly into fractals is restricted to synthetic systems. Here we report the discovery of a natural protein, citrate synthase, which self-assembles into Sierpiński triangles. We use ancestral sequence reconstruction to retrace how the citrate synthase fractal evolved from non-fractal precursors. Our findings expand the space of protein complexes and show that intricate assemblies can evolve in a single substitution.

Animate Cosmos > Fractal > autocat

Gartner, Florian and Erwin Frey. Design principles for fast and efficient self-assembly processes. Physical Review X. 14, 021004, 2024. Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-University physicists provide a latest theoretical explanations which substantiate nature’s characteristic tendency to actively organize itself into emergent, self-similar vitalities wherever it can. See also The role of mobility in epidemics near criticality by Beatrice Nettuno et al. at arXiv:2402.06505 from this group. And into springtime 2024, we begin to wonder if a sufficient confluence is being reached by our learned pediasphere about an actual discovery of a familial genesis and a worthy Earth.

Self-assembly is a fundamental concept in biology, and also nanotechnology. While significant recent progress has been made, less is known about kinetic constraints of dynamical properties like time efficiency. Here we investigate how the temporal straits of reversible self-assembly depend on the morphology of the systems. We find that the constituent shapes critically determines the formation time and how it scales with the size of the target structure. Using this method, we achieve an effective theory of the self-assembly kinetics, which we show exhibits an inherent scale invariance. We show how these insights on the kinetics of self-assembly processes can be used to design artificial self-assembly processes. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal > autocat

Heylighen, Francis, et al. Chemical Organization Theory as a General Modeling Framework for Self-Sustaining Systems.. Systems. 12/4, 2024. FH and Shima Beigi, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Tomas Veloz, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile post a latest edition (search FH) of this ongoing thought process this collaborative group. In regard, its accomplishment provides support for an autocatalytic cosmopoiesis which originates life and long after engenders our personal retrospect.

This paper summarizes and reviews the Chemical Organization Theory (COT), a formalism for complex, self-organizing systems across multiple disciplines. Its elements are resources and reactions whose networks arrange themselves into invariant subnetworks. Altogether they provide a simple model of a natural autopoiesis which persistently recreates and recycles its own components. Application domains of COT include the origin of life, systems biology, cognition, ecosystems, Gaia versions, sustainability, consciousness, and social systems. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal > autocat

Hisata, Uusei, et al. In-silico-assisted derivatization of triarylboranes for the catalytic reductive functionalization of aniline-derived amino acids and peptides.. Nature Communications.. 15/3708, 2024. Osaka University computational chemists employ novel AI methods as a way to further discern and prove nature’s biochemical self-making origins and proactive propensity.

Cheminformatics-based machine learning (ML) has been employed to determine optimal reaction conditions, including catalyst structures, in the field of synthetic chemistry. However, such ML-focused strategies have remained largely unexplored in the context of catalytic molecular transformations using Lewis-acidic main-group elements. Here, the construction of a triarylborane library and its application to the catalytic reductive alkylation of aniline-derived amino acids and C-terminal-protected peptides with aldehydes and H2 is reported. A theoretical and experimental approach identified the optimal borane which exhibits compatibility toward aniline derivatives in the presence of 4-methyltetrahydropyran.

Animate Cosmos > Fractal > autocat

Sakref, Yann and Olivier Rivoire.. Design principles, growth laws, and competition of minimal autocatalysts. arXiv:2403.19047. This 2024 entry by a CNRS, ESPCI, and University of Paris research team (visit OR website for more papers) continues to advance and certify understandings of nature’s pervasive biochemical reactions engage in self-making processes. See also Design of a minimal catalyst using colloidal particles with programmable interactions by Maitane Munoz-Basagoiti, O. Rivoire, et al in Soft Matter (May 2023) for companion work. By these many current entries here and in Origin of Life an autocatalytic cosmopoietic milieu that makes itself is being found and verified.

The difficulty of designing autocatalysts that grow exponentially in the absence of enzymes, external drives or internal mechanisms constrains scenarios for the emergence of evolution in chemical and physical systems. Here, we analyze these difficulties by way of a simple, dimeric molecule that duplicates by templated ligation such that an autocatalyst can achieve exponential growth autonomously. We thus are able to develop a theoretical framework based on kinetic barrier diagrams. Our results provide a blueprint for elementary autocatalysts exhibiting a form of natural selection, whether on a molecular or colloidal scale. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Krasnokutski, Serge, et al. Formation of extraterrestrial peptides and their derivatives. Science Advances. April 17, 2024. MPI Astronomy and University of Poitier, France astrophysicists achieve a strongest verification to date of the ISM occurrence, real protochemistry and precursor occasion for this vital component.

The formation of protein precursors, due to the condensation of atomic carbon under the low-temperature conditions of the molecular phases of the interstellar medium, opens alternative pathways for the origin of life. We perform peptide synthesis under conditions prevailing in space and provide a comprehensive characterization of its products. The application of 13C allowed us to confirm the pathway of peptide formation due to the polymerization of aminoketene molecules formed in the C + CO + NH3 reaction. (Excerpt)

Our studies have detected the formation of Gly-Gly and Gly-Gly-Gly peptides, which aid in the condensation of amino acid derivatives in aqueous solution. In this sense, the found pathway for the peptide formation is autocatalytic, which could potentially initiate natural selection in early Earth or even in the liquid phase of asteroids and comets. The peptides are also considered promising candidates for the formation of protomembranes. (5)

A peptide is a short string of 2 to 50 amino acids, formed by a condensation reaction, joining together through a covalent bond. Sequential covalent bonds with additional amino acids yield a peptide chain and the building block of proteins.

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Wang, Jai, et al. Interstellar formation of glyceric acid, the simplest sugar.. Science Advances. March 24, 2024. University of Hawaii and University of Mississippi (Ryan Fortenberry) cite their sweet detection of this organic mainstay compound. As the quotes imply, once again nature’s astrochemistry seems to possess an innate spontaneity to form just what life needs for the long cellular ovogenesis to our late retrospect description.


Glyceric acid [HOCH2CH(OH)COOH] is a key molecule in biochemical metabolic processes such as glycolysis. Although linked to the origins of life and identified in carbonaceous meteorites, the mechanisms of its formation have remained elusive. Here, we report the first abiotic synthesis of racemic glyceric acid via the radical-radical reaction of the hydroxycarbonyl radical with 1,2-dihydroxyethyl radical in low-temperature carbon dioxide and ethylene glycol ices. This work reveals the key pathways for glyceric acid synthesis through nonequilibrium reactions from profuse precursor molecules, advancing our fundamental knowledge of the formation of key biorelevant organics—sugar acids—in deep space. (Abstract)

Here, we demonstrate the very first abiotic synthesis of 1 in low-temperature (5 K) carbon dioxide and ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH, 16) ice mixtures. This was accomplished via the barrierless radical- radical eaction of the hydroxycarbonyl (HOĊO, 11) with the 1,2-dihydroxyethyl (HOĊHCH2OH, 17) radicals (Figs. 1 and 2). These model ices were exposed to energetic electrons mimicking secondary electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) pene-trating ices in cold molecular clouds aged a few million years. (1)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Coelho, Liqia, et al. Purple is the new green: biopigments and spectra of Earth-like purple worlds.. arXiv:2404.10105. Cornell University and University of Minnesota astroscientists including Lisa Kaltenegger (See also her new book Alien Earths: The New Science of Planet Hunting in the Cosmos) expand and extol the frontiers of exoplanet searches as they go forward with new telescopes and instruments. They scope and inspire a grand quest for other neighbors, which requires a widest allowance for what forms and features may be possible.

With more than 5500 detected exoplanets, the search for life is entering a new era. Using life on Earth as our guide, we look beyond green landscapes to expand our ability to detect signs of surface life on other worlds. While oxygenic photosynthesis gives rise to green landscapes, bacteriochlorophyll-based anoxygenic phototrophs can also color their habitats. Here, we characterize the reflectance spectra of purple sulfur and purple non-sulfur bacteria from a variety of anoxic and oxic environments. Our biological pigment data base for purple bacteria and the high-resolution spectra of Earth-like planets, including ocean worlds, snowball planets, and frozen worlds are available online, providing a tool for modellers and observers to train retrieval algorithms, optimize search strategies, and inform models.

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Gillmann, Cedric, et al. Gillmann, Cedric, et al. Venus. arXiv:2404.07669.. arXiv:2404.07669.. After many years of relative neglect for lack of insufficient evidence, ten astroscientists based in the USA, France and Switzerland (NASA, CalTech, Sorbonne) including Giada Arney now scope out a major endeavor to learn all about and understand this close by but radically different neighbor. See also, for example, Necessary Conditions for Earthly Life Floating in the Venusian Atmosphere at 2404.05356 about chemical comparisons and microbial life.

After decades of absence, interest in Venus surges anew in planetary science. Future missions are planned which will pave the way to encounter many mysteries our closest Solar System neighbor. Building on the legacy of past works, we discuss the state of our understanding of Venus from both observation and modeling. We describe each envelope of the planet from its atmosphere to interior with an eye for the most recent advances. We then briefly discuss coupled modelling efforts to better constrain the evolution of the planet.

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Kaltenegger, Lisa. Alien Earths: The New Science of Planet Hunting in the Cosmos. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2024. The Carl Sagan Institute to Search for Life in the Cosmos director and astronomy professor at Cornell University provides a best current guide to the celestial planetarium show of a galactic, star-studded, profligate world spacescape. As a frequent traveler to and speaker at scientific conferences, readers are advised of major search projects such as the Webb telescope, along with frontier findings. If one might note a theme, it is the wide variety of planets covered with lava, oceans, toxic gases and host stars of red dwarfs, clusters, and all else. As the display goes on we learn about global wanderers not in orrerys. But a late chapter is No Place Like Home, since a valid analog has not yet been found.

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

wood, J. M., et al. Terrestrial planet formation from a ring: long-term simulations accounting for the giant planet instability. arXiv:2404.17259. Université Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO and University of Toronto astronomers including Alessandro Morbidelli discuss the latest Earthuman studies about how global worlds of all great and small kinds come to form and reside in vicarious solar systems. These origins are not readily revealing themselves so more finesse is required. But one wonders over the whole scenario whence. a collaborative sapiensphere carries out a retrospective task of scientific self-representation. Whom are we all to do this and for what reason?

The process leading to the formation of the terrestrial planet remains elusive. In a previous publication, we have shown that, if the first generation of planetesimals forms in a ring at about 1 AU and the gas disk's density peaks at the ring location, planetary embryos of a few Martian masses can grow. In this work, we extend our simulations beyond the gas-disk stage to account for the phase of giant planet instability. About half of the model forms a pair of Venus and Earth analogues and about 10% form a Mars analogue. The timing of the giant planet instability affects the terrestrial system's excitation state and the last giant impacts. The best-case scenario is that the Moon-forming event occurred between 50 and 80 My. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Self-Selection

Gillmann, Cedric, et al. Interior Controls on the Habitability of Rocky Planets. Space Science Technology. 4/0075, 2024. ETH Zurich geophysicists now proceed to add another influential factor for life’s evolutionary presence as the interior geochemical make-up and its temporal course which may then affect surface environments.

No matter how exotic other terrestrial planets are revealed to be, the most interest regards their habitability. The characterization of exoplanets for life has been a major driver for space exploration. Conducive environs for terrestrial planets have proved elusive, as surface conditions depend on the complex interplay of many processes throughout its evolution. Here we review how the interior of a rocky planet can affect geological and atmospheric features over time. Instead of listing criteria assumed to be critical for life, we discuss how the bulk-silicate planet can influence the onset, continuation and cessation of habitability. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Self-Selection

Herbort, Oliver, et al. Habitability constraints by nutrient availability in atmospheres of rocky exoplanets. arXiv:2404.04029. University of Vienna, Austrian Academy of Sciences, and Marble Space Institute of Science, USA astroresearchers provide one more finely cast factor as just the right bioatomic mix in a watery solvent and moist air so as to engender relative organic combinations.

Life as we know it requires liquid water and nutrients, which are mainly based on the elements C, H, N, O, P, and S and trace metal micronutrients. In this paper we introduce a framework of nutrient availability levels based on the presence of water condensates and the chemical state of the CHNOPS elements.. The atmospheric model is a bottom-to-top equilibrium chemistry phase which includes the atmosphere-crust interaction and the element depletion due to the formation of clouds. While the reduced forms of CNS are present at the water cloud base for most atmospheric compositions, P and metals are lacking. (excerpt)

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