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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 91 through 105 of 139 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Nest > Geological

Bonetti, Sara, et al. Channelization Cascade in Landscape Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/1375, 2020. ETH Zurich, Princeton and Polytechnic Institute of Torino systems geologists including Amilcare Porporato achieve another current proof that it is possible to verify the manifest, exemplary presence of a self-organizing, self-similar mathematics even across mountainous arête terrains.

We show that increasingly complex ridge and valley networks are produced by nonlinear partial differential equations as a minimalist landscape evolution model to describe the interplay between soil creep, runoff erosion, and tectonic uplift. We identify critical conditions for the transition from a smooth to a channelized topography and highlight striking similarities with fluid dynamic turbulence. The results shed light on the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed landscape self-organization. The formation of regular prefractal networks reveals a tendency to evolve toward optimal configurations typical of nonequilibrium complex systems. (Significance)

Sara Bonetti I am an ecohydrologist at ETH Zurich with a strong interest in the quantitative description of ecosystem functioning. My past and current research focuses on the analysis and modeling of i) vadose zone processes, ii) plant hydraulics, iii) landscape topography and evolution under natural and disturbed conditions, iv) vegetation pattern formation, and v) soil-plant atmosphere interactions.

Dr. (Amilcare) Porporato's research at Princeton University focuses on the quantitative description of the complex dynamics of the terrestrial water cycle. He uses both theoretical and experimental approaches to describe dynamical components of these physical and biological interactions. Because of an inherent interdisciplinarity, his research methods draw from fluid mechanics, soil physics, plant physiology, statistical physics, nonlinear dynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, and complex system science.

Earth Life > Nest > Geological

Ma, Hongbo, et al. Universal Relation with Regime Transition for Sediment Transport in Fine-Grained Rivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/171, 2020. A thirteen member team of geoscientists from across China and the USA, with a global cast of names, uncover and quantify a common mathematical basis which underlie and guide such sediment flows and depositions across the world’s waterways. We also cite as more current proof that a natural genesis is graced by an independent generative source code across land, sea, air and space.

Fine-grained sediment transport systems (grain size under 2,000 μm) are ubiquitous over time and space on Earth and extraplanetary surfaces, and include rivers, deltaic coastal settings, and submarine, subglacial systems. Forecasting the evolution of Earth’s surface requires a predictive algorithm for sediment transport. Herein we provide a universal relation for sediment transport in fine-grained rivers. Surprisingly, it is shown that sediment flux differs by up to 2 orders of magnitude as grain size changes only slightly near the boundary between very fine sand and fine sand. The universal applicability of the sediment transport formulation enables quantitative understanding of the sedimentology and morphology of fine-grained rivers. (Significance)

Earth Life > Nest > Geological

Rak, Rafal, et al. Universal Features of Mountain Ridge Networks on Earth. Journal of Complex Networks. May, 2019. We cite this entry by Polish systems geophysicists including Jaroslaw Kwapien and Stanislaw Drozdz (search) as another instance of how every phenomenal aspect is being found to exhibit the generative presence of fractal, self-similar, multiplex topologies. These late 2010s abilities strongly imply and represent an independent mathematical source program which manifests at every scale and instance from quantum inflation to our deep bicameral brains.

In this paper, we analyse different mountain ranges by means of a network approach so to reveal grasp essential features of their branching structure. We employ a fractal method as especially good at describing properties of rough objects and surfaces. We study ridge network structure by way of empirical elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission across mountain ranges from different geological periods and geographical locations. We observe that the topographic networks do display fractal scales of the mountain ranges and by another view show the power-law degree distributions. Since the various aretes differ in many properties, these values seem to be universal for Earthly mountainous terrains. (Abstract excerpt, edits)

Earth Life > Nest > Life Origin

Camprubi, Eloi, et al. The Emergence of Life. Space Science Reviews. 215/56, 2019. Eight researchers posted in the Netherlands, France, and the USA including Frances Westall and Michael Russell provide a comprehensive illustrated survey to date of both Earthly and astronomic environs such as watery moons, along with candidate RNA, geologic surface, first prokaryote and other aspects as they may have served to foster our late sentience and present reconstructive vista.

The aim of this article is to provide an overview of possible scenarios for the emergence of life, to critically assess them and to analyze whether similar processes could have been conducive to independent origins of life on the several icy moons of the Solar System. Instead of proposing an unequivocal cradle of life on Earth, we describe the different requirements that seem to be needed for the transition between non-life to life from geological, biological, and chemical perspectives in an integrative manner. Based on the conclusions extracted, we address whether the conditions for abiogenesis are/were met in any of the oceanic moons. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Life Origin

Preiner, Martina, et al. The Future of Origin of Life Research: Bridging Decades Old-Divisions. Life. 10/3, 2020. This is a conference summary by twenty five “early career” scientists as a unique retrospect of this field over its past decades, so that an integrative resolve going forward can be scoped out. The overview allows prior aspects such as prebiotic catalysis, thermal sea vents, mineral surfaces, first replicators, encapsulations, some 21 in all, to be gathered into a graphic display. A further issue has been a broad split between an RNA replicator or bounded metabolism preference, see Iris Fry 2011 herein. New synoptic pathways will involve better theories, common trends, and clever experiment. In this regard, this intentional project is a good example of an intentional shift to a coordinated, worldwide scientific pursuit.

Research on the origin of life is highly heterogeneous. After a peculiar historical development, it still includes strongly opposed views which potentially hinder progress. In the 1st Interdisciplinary Origin of Life Meeting, early-career researchers gathered to explore the commonalities between theories and approaches, critical divergence points, and expectations for the future. We find that even though classical approaches and theories—e.g. bottom-up and top-down, RNA world vs. metabolism-first—have been prevalent in origin of life research, they are ceasing to be mutually exclusive and they can and should feed integrating approaches. Here we focus on pressing questions and recent developments that bridge the classical disciplines and approaches, and highlight expectations for future endeavours in origin of life research. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Microbial

Schleper, Christa and Filipa Sousa. Meet the Relatives of Our Cellular Ancestor. Nature. 577/519, 2020. University of Vienna, Archaea Biology and Ecogenomics Group bioscientists cite a paper, Isolation of an Archaeon at the Prokaryote-Eukaryote Interface by Hiroyuki Imachi, et al in the same issue, as a significant quantification of how rudimentary microbal cells seem to have internal propensity (drive) to become nucleated cells on their long course to multicellularity.

Microorganisms related to lineages of the Asgard archaea group are thought to have evolved into complex eukaryotic cells. Now the first Asgard archaeal species to be grown in the laboratory reveals its metabolism and cell biology.

Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic

Lim, Shen Jean and Seth Bordenstein. An Introduction to Phylosymbiosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Vol. 287/Iss. 1922, 2020. Vanderbilt University biologists (search SB) describe and illustrate this new found way that life well avails the benefits of myriad microbe-host communities. The survey covers, for example, plant roots, insect guts, aquatic creatures, land animals such as rodents and primates, and more. See also A Bird’s Eye View of Phylosymbiosis by Brian Trevelline, et al in this journal, Issue 1923, which reports upon avian instances.

Phylosymbiosis was formulated to support a hypothesis-driven framework for the characterization of a cross-system trend in host-associated microbiomes. Defining phylosymbiosis as ‘microbial community relationships that recapitulate the phylogeny of their host’, we review its literature and data. Quantitative proof is provided by statistical methods evaluating higher microbiome variation between host species than within host species, and a positive association between host genetic relationships and microbiome beta diversity. Significant degrees of phylosymbiosis are prevalent in microbiomes of plants and animals from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Its pervasiveness carries several important implications for advancing knowledge of eco-evolutionary processes that impact host–microbiome interactions and future applications of precision microbiology. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic

Singharoy, Abhishek, et al. Atoms to Phenotypes: Molecular Design Principles of Cellular Energy Metabolism. Cell. 179/1098, 2019. At the culmination of the global 2010s, nineteen Arizona State University, Center for Applied Structural Discovery, molecular biologists present an illustrated report which proceeds to root life’s vesicular development phases deeply into a fertile physical substrate. In this expansive view, the scientific studies of cellular organisms which began decades, and centuries ago can now by way of detailed experiment, graphic display, and computational verity connect with a vital conducive ecosmos. From our late vantage, universe and human are rejoined as one and the same. As the quotes say, a further aspect is an advent and passage of a self-creative natural genesis to our collaborative, respectful, informed mitigation and continuance. A commentary herein is Dynamic Modeling of a 100 Million Atom Organelle at the Source of Life by Jean-David Rochaix (179/1012).

At the culmination of the global 2010s, nineteen Arizona State University, Center for Applied Structural Discovery, molecular biologists present an illustrated report which proceeds to root life’s vesicular development phases deeply into a fertile physical substrate. In this expansive view, the scientific studies of cellular organisms which began decades, and centuries ago can now by way of detailed experiment, graphic display, and computational verity connect with a vital conducive ecosmos. From our late vantage, universe and human are rejoined as one and the same. As the quotes say, a further aspect is an advent and passage of a self-creative natural genesis to our collaborative, respectful, informed mitigation and continuance. A commentary herein is Dynamic Modeling of a 100 Million Atom Organelle at the Source of Life by Jean-David Rochaix (179/1012).

Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic

Sorensen, Megan, et al. Comparison of Independent Evolutionary Origins Reveals both Convergence and Divergence in the Metabolic Mechanisms of Symbiosis. Current Biology. 30/2, 2020. University of Sheffield, Exeter, and York biologists describe sophisticated experiments to elucidate the primary role played by nature’s tendency for all manner of cellular entities to join together in mutual benefit. Although difficult to recover because not readily evident, their procreative influence in life’s episodic emergence grows in importance. But in the article or references the life work of Lynn Margulis (1938-2011) as an advocate this vital feature, against much opposition, is not mentioned. A decade later one might imagine a second worldwide phase which at last confirms a universal symbiotic synthesis. See also a commentary Evolution: Convergent Pathways to Symbiosis by Levi Morran in the same issue.

Through the merger of previously independent lineages, symbiosis promotes the acquisition of new traits and exploitation of ecological niches, driving evolutionary innovation and vital ecosystem functions. In order to study this convergent process, independent we compared the metabolic mechanisms of two independent origins of Paramecium bursaria-Chlorella photosymbiosis using a reciprocal metabolomic pulse-chase method. This showed convergent patterns of nutrient exchange and utilization for host-derived nitrogen in the Chlorella genotypes and symbiont-derived carbon in the P. bursaria genotypes. Altogether our data suggests that the multiple origins of P. bursaria-Chlorella symbiosis use a convergent nutrient exchange. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic

Speijer, Dave. Debating Eukaryogenesis: Does Eukaryogenesis Presuppose Symbiosis Before Uptake? BioEssays. 42/2, 2020. The University of Amsterdam veteran biologist makes a strong case to date that life’s innate avail of beneficial assemblies at every stage reveals a persistent “symbiogenesis,” instead of an “autogenesis” by many small steps. Other “predator/prey” models are then also set aside. So it seems after decades of study, it can be said that this mutual “coadptation” method becomes most evident, and thus can traced to an earlier, onset phase. Further experiments are proposed, but in this consummate year, it does seem that a “universal symbiosis” proceeds apace through a developmental evolutionary gestation.

Eukaryotic origins are heavily debated. The author and others have proposed that they are linked with the arrival of a pre‐mitochondrion of alphaproteobacterial=like ancestry, in a so‐called symbiogenic scenario. The ensuing mutual adaptation of archaeal host and endosymbiont seems to have been a defining influence leading to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. An unresolved question deals with the means by which the bacterium ends up inside. Here the author argues that prior models share flaws, hence making them less likely, and that a “pre‐symbiotic stage” would have eased ongoing metabolic integration. I will speculate about the nature of the (endo) symbiosis that started eukaryotic evolution in the context of bacterial entry being a relatively “early” event. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Multicellular

Larson, Ben, et al. Biophysical Principles of Choanoflagellate Self-Organization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/1303, 2020. UC Berkeley and Harvard biologists including Nicole King describe how these cellular cousins are likewise moved by and exemplify these common formative agencies, as they proceed toward multicellular developments. Once again a natural genesis uses the same independent source system at each instance.

Comparisons among animals and their closest living relatives, the choanoflagellates, have begun to shed light on the origin of animal multicellularity and development. Here, we complement previous genetic perspectives on this process by focusing on the biophysical principles underlying choanoflagellate colony morphology and morphogenesis. Our study reveals the crucial role of the extracellular matrix in shaping the colonies and leads to a phase diagram that delineates the range of morphologies as a function of the biophysical mechanisms at play. (Significance)

The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals. Choanoflagellates are collared flagellates having a funnel shaped collar of interconnected microvilli at the base of a flagellum.

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Tokita, Christopher and Corina Tarnita. Social Influence and Interaction Bias can Drive Emergent Behavioural Specialization and Modular Social Networks Across Systems. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. January, 2020. Princeton University evolutionary ecologists identify how complex adaptive system features such as diverse group modules, and appropriation of tasks are present and evident for many animal species. See also Fitness Benefits and Emergent Division of Labour at the Onset of Group Living by Y. Ulrich, et al (C. Tarnita) in Nature (560/635, 2018).

In social systems ranging from ant colonies to human society, consistent differences in behavior are common. Individuals can specialize in tasks they perform (division of labour DOL), their political poles, or various personalities they exhibit. Behavioural specialization often co-occurs with modular and assortative social networks as entities tend to associate with similar others. We then wonder whether the same mechanism could drive co-emergent social network structures. Here we extend a model of self-organized DOL to account for influence and interaction bias among various social dynamics. Our findings suggest that DOL and political polarization—two social phenomena not typically considered together—may actually share a common core. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

Keil, Petr, et al. Macroecological and Macroevolutionary Patterns Emerge in the Universe of GNU/Linux Operating Systems. Ecography. 41/11, 2018. This rich paper by European theoretical ecologists is reviewed more in Common Principles.

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

McGuirl, Melissa, et al. Topological Data Analysis of Zebrafish Patterns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/5113, 2020. Self-organized pattern behavior is ubiquitous throughout nature from fish schooling to collective cell dynamics. (1) Biomathematicans MM and Bjorn Sandstede, Brown University, and Alexandria Volkening, Northwestern University provide an example of how widely this natural propensity has become accepted in practice. In the early 2000s, it was hardly mentioned anywhere. In 2020, a universality of local interactive agents from which a global phase arises is strongly evident. After citing this common source, the paper describes an instance by the way it shapes aquatic scale formations.

Earth Life > Nest > Homo Sapiens

Paabo, Svante. The Human Condition: A Molecular Approach. Cell. 157/216, 2014. As our Paleogenomics section cites, the MPI Evolutionary Anthropology geneticist and original sequencer of Neanderthal genomes describes how past lineages of homo sapiens are being wholly revised and sketched anew by such advanced genetic sequemce techniques.

Research into when and where modern humans originated and how they differ from, and interacted with, other now-extinct forms of human has so far been the realm of archaeologists and paleoanthropologists. However, over the past decade, molecular geneticists have begun to study genomes of extinct humans. Here, I discuss where we stand today with respect to understanding how modern humans came to differ from Neandertals and other human forms that existed until about 30,000 years ago.

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